PA World History Standards


8.4.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to...



A. Evaluate the significance of individuals and groups who made major political and cultural contributions to world history since 1450.

• Political and Military Leaders (e.g., Askia Daud, Simon Bolivar, Napoleon Bonaparte, Mao Zedong)
• Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Chinua Achebe, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Akira Kurosawa, Christopher Columbus)
• Innovators and Reformers (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Louis-Joseph Papineau, Mohandas Gandhi, Alexander Fleming)



B. Evaluate historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history since 1450.

• Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Declaration of the International Conference on Sanctions Against South Africa; Monroe Doctrine, Communist Manifesto, Luther’s Ninety-five Theses)
• Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Robben Island, New York World Trade Center, Hiroshima Ground Zero Memorial, Nazi concentration camps)
• Historic districts (e.g., Timbuktu, Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco, Taj Mahal and Gardens, Kremlin and Red Square)



C. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450.

• Africa
• Americas
• Asia
• Europe



D. Evaluate how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history from 1450 to Present in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe.


• Domestic Instability
• Ethnic and Racial Relations
• Labor Relations
• Immigration and Migration
• Military Conflicts



Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors. Suggested chronology in organizing the content for grade levels 7-9 and 10-12 use the 15th century as the dividing point; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.